A nosebleed is characterized by bleeding from the interior of the nasal cavity. It can be caused by heat, dry air, trauma to the nose, certain medications, or a medical condition.


Anterior nosebleeds, or bleeding of the nose that comes from near the nose opening, are the most common nosebleeds in children. Children are twice as likely to experience nosebleeds as adults are. Bleeding that originates from deep within the nasal cavity is known as a posterior nosebleed, the type usually experienced by adults.

Causes and symptoms

The most common causes of nosebleeds are:
  • Low humidity. Hot and dry climates can dry out the nasal cavities.
  • Nasal trauma. Injuries to the nose can cause bleeding. Excessive nose picking can also injure the interior of the nose.
  • Cold, allergies, and sinus infections. Excessive nose blowing and irritation to the mucous membrane can cause bleeding.
  • Medications. Bleeding can be triggered by Certain medications, particularly those with anticoagulant (or blood thinning) properties.

Notoginseng root

Notoginseng root is a frequently prescribed herb in Chinese medicine. The scientific names for the plant are Panax notoginseng and Panax pseudoginseng. The herb is also referred to as pseudoginseng, and in Chinese it is called Tien qi ginseng, San qi, three-seven root, and Mountain paint.

Notoginseng belongs to the same scientific genus, Panax, as Asian ginseng. In Latin, the word panax means “cure-all,” and the family of ginseng plants is one of the most famous and frequently used of all families of herbs.

Notoginseng grows naturally in China and Japan. The Chinese refer to it as “three-seven root” because the plant has three leaves on one side and four leaves on the other.


Nutmeg is known by many names, such Myristica fragrans, mace, magic, muscdier, muskatbaum, myristica, noz moscada, nuez moscada, and nux moschata. Nutmeg is most commonly used as a cooking spice, comes from the fruit of a 50 ft (15 m) tall tropical evergreen tree.

This tree grows in Indonesia, New Guinea, and the West Indies. The bark is smooth and grayish brown with green young branches and leaves. The oblong, fleshy fruit, called the nutmeg apple, contains a nut from which nutmeg is made. The dried nut and essential oil are both used as medicine.

Nutmeg is used in both Western and Chinese herbal medicine. It is most popular as a spice in food and drinks, and is also used in cosmetics and soaps. In ancient Greece and Rome, where nutmeg was rare and expensive, people thought it stimulated the brain. The Arabs have used nutmeg since the seventh century.


Good nutrition can help prevent disease and promote health. There are six categories of nutrients that the body needs to acquire from food: protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibers, vitamins and minerals, and water.


Protein supplies amino acids to build and maintain healthy body tissue. There are 20 amino acids considered essential because the body must have all of them in the right amounts to function properly.

Twelve of these are manufactured in the body but the other eight amino acids must be provided by the diet. Foods from animal sources such as milk or eggs often contain all these essential amino acids while a variety of plant products must be taken together to provide all these necessary protein components.

Nux vomica

Nux vomica is the homeopathic remedy that is created from the seeds of the strychnos nux vomica tree. Also known as poison nut or vomiting nut, this tree is an evergreen tree that is native to East India, Burma, Thailand, China, and Northern Australia.

The tree belongs to the Loganiaceae family and has small flowers and orange colored fruits that are the size of an apple or orange. Inside the fruit are five seeds surrounded by a jelly-like pulp.

The ash gray seeds are round and measure 1 in (2.5 cm) in diameter and are .25 in (0.6 cm) thick. The seeds are coated with downy hairs that give them a satiny appearance.


Oak is the common name for many acorn-producing trees and shrubs that are members of the beech, or Fagaceae, family. Oak trees are classified as members of the genus Quercus, a Latin word said to be derived from a Celtic word meaning “fine tree.”

Worldwide there are more than 600 different species of oak. They thrive across the Northern Hemisphere in China, Japan, Europe, the British Isles, and in all of the continental United States except for Alaska.

More than half of the 600 species are native to North America. Yet only about 60 varieties grow north of Mexico. In the forests of northern areas that have short summer growing seasons and long winters, such as Canada, northern Europe, and Siberia, varieties of oak are very scarce.


Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual’s ideal body weight. Obesity is associated with increased risk of illness, disability, and death.

The branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of obesity is known as bariatrics. As obesity has become a major health problem in the United States, bariatrics has become a separate medical and surgical specialty.


Obesity traditionally has been defined as body weight at least 20% above the weight corresponding to the lowest death rate for individuals of a specific height, sex, and age (designated as the ideal weight).

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by distressing repetitive thoughts, impulses, or images that are intense, frightening, absurd, or unusual. These thoughts are followed by ritualized actions that are usually bizarre and irrational.

These ritual actions, known as compulsions, help reduce anxiety caused by the individual’s obsessive thoughts. Often described as the “disease of doubt,” the sufferer usually knows the obsessive thoughts and compulsions are irrational but, on another level, fears they may be true.


Almost one out of every 40 people will suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder at some time in their lives. The condition is two to three times more common than either schizophrenia or manic depression, and strikes men and women of every ethnic group, age, and social level.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are one of two groups of fatty acids—the omega-3s and the omega-6s—that are vital to human life. They are called essential fatty acids (EFAs), which the body cannot make but absolutely needs for normal growth and development.

These fats must be supplied by diet. People living in industrialized western countries eat up to 30 times more omega-6 than omega-3 fatty acids, resulting in a relative deficiency of omega-3 fats.

Omega-6 metabolic products (inflammatory prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes) are formed in excessive amounts causing allergic and inflammatory disorders and making the body more prone to heart attacks, strokes, and cancer.

Omega-6 fatty acids

Omega-6 fatty acids are one of two groups of essential fatty acids (EFAs) that are required in human nutrition. (The other is the omega-3 fatty acid group.) Omega-6 fatty acids include linoleic acid and its derivatives.

Essential means that these fatty acids must be consumed in the diet because humans cannot manufacture them from other dietary fats or nutrients, nor can they be stored in the body. They must be consumed daily to meet the body’s requirements.

They are macronutrients, required in amounts of grams per day (compared to micronutrients such as vitamins, which are required in milligrams per day). EFAs provide energy and are also components of nerve cells, cellular membranes, and are converted to hormone-like substances known as prostaglandins.


Ophiopogon is a perennial herbaceous plant that is native to the Orient. Under the name mai men dong, its tuberous root is a highly prized and indispensable part of Chinese herbal medicine.

In addition, this plant’s graceful, grass-like leaves and tiny bell-shaped flowers have made it a popular landscaping ground cover. It is commonly known in the Western world as lily-turf or Liriope spicata, and is a member of the lily, or Liliaceae, family.

The tufted mounds that ophiopogon forms are usually about 1 ft (30cm) in height and diameter. On closer examination, the individual leaves of the plant resemble straps 0.25 in (0.6 cm) to almost 2 in (5 cm) in width and up to 16 in long (40.6 cm), depending upon the species. Ophiopogon leaves are evergreen and have a leathery appearance.

Oregano essential oil

Oregano (origanum vulgare)is a member of the Labiatae family (commonly referred to as the mint family). Its name is from the Greek word oreganos, which loosely translated means “joy of the mountains.”

Native to Mediterranean regions, such as Greece and Crete, oregano is a perennial plant with an aromatic scent. With flowers that bloom from July to September, the plant is generally 2.5ft (75 cm) high and 2–3 ft (60–90 cm) wide. Its hairy, oval-shaped leaves are approximately 1.5 in (3.75 cm) in diameter and grow opposite of one another.

Oregano essential oil is produced from the oregano plant through the process of steam distillation. There are a variety of species referred to as oregano, but only a few qualify as high grade and are suitable for making oregano essential oil.

Ornish diet

The Ornish diet was developed by Dean Ornish, M.D. Ornish was the first physician to demonstrate that heart disease can be reversed by natural methods, including specific dietary and lifestyle changes.

Before Ornish published his clinical studies of patients whose cardiovascular problems were improved by diet and other means, doctors believed that heart disease was irreversible.


It took Ornish several published studies before conventional medicine would accept his position that simple and inexpensive treatments, including diet, exercise, and stress reduction, could reverse heart disease.


Ortho-bionomy is a form of therapeutic bodywork, based on the principle that gentle and non-invasive body alignment has a positive influence on physical and emotional disorders.


Ortho-bionomy was developed in the 1970s by Dr. Arthur Lincoln Pauls, a British osteopathic physician who was also an accomplished martial artist.

Pauls was influenced by the principles of osteopathy that state that the function of the body is related to its physical (skeletal) alignment; that proper circulation of the blood and lymph is crucial to health; and that the body contains built-in mechanisms that can be triggered to correct imbalances and diseases.